Painting Process

paintprocessThe process of painting can be divided into three steps:
a) Pre-painting work
b) Surface preparation
c) Painting

Interior Walls

Pre-painting

  • Check surface for incidence of dampness or water seepage.
  • Rectify the water seepage problem at source. This could mean repairing leaking pipes or cracks in the exterior walls.
  • Any loose plaster should be removed from the wall. Check for loose plaster by tapping on the walls. A hollow sound indicates loose plaster.
  • Masonry work is to be undertaken to fill up all cracks and repair broken plaster
  • Please ensure proper curing time (7 to 21 days depending on extent of plastering). When re-plastering is done it should be given proper drying and stabilising time to bridge the cracks or smoothen the surface.

Surface Preparation

  • Allow newly plastered surfaces to mature for a period of at least 6 months after the application of a coat of lime ash to ensure thorough drying of plaster. Popping of plaster, commonly associated with new Neeru plasters, can be taken care of subsequently during painting.
  • Remove loose particles and paint flakes. Scrape with sandpaper to ensure that the surface is dry and free from dust, dirt or grease.
  • Previous coatings of lime wash or powder distemper or cement paint must be thoroughly scraped off. Earlier coatings of oil or synthetic emulsion paints, if in good condition, need not be removed. However, the gloss or sheen of such coating must be removed by thorough sanding.
  • Cracked or flaked paint must also be completely removed.
  • Fungus affected areas need to be given a separate treatment. Make a 5-10% solution of bleach powder in water and apply on affected areas with brush or sponge. Wash the walls with clean water after an interval of 8-10 hours. Allow the surface to dry sufficiently.

Painting

  • Apply a coat of wall primer. Use Decoprime Wall Primer (solvent thinnable) on absorbent surfaces and use Decoprime Wall Primer (water thinnable) on new surfaces.
  • Fill and level the minor undulations of wall by applying putty. For best results, use Asian Paints Acrylic Wall Putty. In case of major undulations on the wall surface, POP (Plaster of Paris) work needs to be carried out. Ensure that the surface is uniformly smooth by sanding after POP or putty work.
  • One liberal coat of Decoprime Wall Primer (solvent thinned or water thinned) is recommended on puttied areas before the application of top coat. The primer should be allowed to dry for 10 – 12 hours. If the primer coat is not applied over the puttied areas, there can be a patchy appearance of the top coat.
  • Avoid application of putty or filling compound while painting exterior surfaces. Fill up cracks with a 1:3 (by volume) cement and sand mixture.
  • All external drainage pipes must be checked for rusting or leakage. Any faulty plumbing must be rectified
  • Special attention must be given to the roof. Check for cracks near the edges and close to the water reservoirs. Proper masonry or waterproofing work on the ceiling will enhance the performance of the paint.

Exterior Surface

Pre-painting

For exterior surfaces it is very important to undertake repairs of any wall imperfections before commencing painting. The most common problem with exterior walls, especially old constructions, is cracks in the wall. Avoid applying putty or filling compound while painting exterior surfaces. Fill up cracks with a 1:3 cement and sand mixture. All external drainage pipes must be checked for rusting or leakage. Any faulty plumbing must be rectified.

Special attention must be given to the roof. Check for cracks near the edges and close to the water reservoirs. Proper masonry or waterproofing work on the ceiling will enhance the performance of the painted surfaces.

Surface Preparation

  • Newly plastered surfaces must be allowed to cure for at least 35 to 45 days before painting.
  • To ensure long protection, the surface to be painted should be free from dust, grease and any loose materials.
  • Remove any fungus and algae growth thoroughly by brushing it vigorously with wire brush and then cleaning it with bleaching powder solution in water (dissolve 10% bleaching powder in 1 litre of water, filter the solution and apply with a brush or sponge). This treatment should be done with greater care on the top of the awnings, sunshades, parapets and other horizontal surfaces where water is likely to accumulate during monsoon.
  • Previously oil painted surfaces should be sanded thoroughly to remove loose particles and made dull and matte for better adhesion. Exterior rough surfaces, previously coated with cement paint, should be wire brushed and washed with water thoroughly and dried completely. Before painting, ensure that the surface is free from chalking.
  • The exterior surface should not be affected by water and constant dampness should be avoided. If you are painting during the rains, allow for 2-3 days of total sunshine for the surface to dry out completely and before commencing painting.

Painting

  • Apply a liberal coat of Asian Paints Exterior Wall Primer using recommended method.
  • Apply two coats of top coat paint at recommended dilution. You can use Apex Weatherproof Exterior Emulsion or Apex Textured Exterior Emulsion or Ace Exterior Emulsion as top coat.
  • A gap of 4 to 6 hours must be given between two coats.
  • It is recommended that horizontal surfaces like the tops of awnings and parapets must be given an additional coat for greater protection.

Dos and Donts During Paint Process

bscpaintsFrom cleaning tips to DOs and DON’Ts, follow these steps to ensure that your walls look as good as new, for longer.

  • Most wall paints (like emulsions and washable distempers) can be periodically cleaned with a mild soap water solution. However, stubborn and very old stains are difficult to remove from the film.
  • Cleaning can be done at least 2 weeks after application of finished coat for removing the dust collected on the surface. After that, please note that the older the stains, the more difficult it to remove.
  • Special care should be taken for the passages, kitchens and children’s rooms where soiling is maximum.
  • Every month, keep a day aside to clean the walls. Use a sponge and mild soap solution and lightly scrub the areas that have stains. Heavy scrubbing may result in permanent damage to the paint film.
  • In case of severe staining (like spilled food) clean the walls immediately before the stain dries up.
  • Children’s rooms are likely to get dirty far more quickly than the rest of the house. Hence it is advisable to get a single coat of paint done every two years or so. However one must ensure a light sanding of the surface with emery paper 400 to make the surface conducive for fresh paint adhesion & dirt removal.
  • Check your walls periodically for signs of paint flaking or peeling. This could be the first sign of water leakage or seepage problems. The moment such problems are noticed, get a contractor to look at the problem area. If the problem is localised (only occurring in specific areas) and the source of water seepage is detected, have it rectified immediately to prevent the water seepage from spreading further. This might require repainting one or two walls. Ignoring the problem however will aggravate the matter and will turn out to be much more expensive later.
  • Enamel paint on the doors and windows exposed to sunlight loses its gloss over time. It is a good practice to apply a single coat every two years to keep them looking fresh. However one must ensure a light sanding of the surface with emery paper 400 to make the surface conducive for fresh paint adhesion & dirt removal.

Cleaning of Paint Drips
When painting your home, care should be always taken that the paint fallen on the floor should be immediately wiped out. Articles like fans, chandeliers, cupboards, centre tables, beds, chairs, etc. should always be covered with plastic sheet to avoid further cleaning which is a very difficult option.

  • Water Based Paints: (distempers, wall putty, emulsion paints – interior as well as exterior including water based luxury enamel and primers)
    • Wet condition: Immediately wash with cold water and wipe with clean cloth.
    • Dried film: First, the drip should be soaked with water or dilute detergent solution. The film should be scrapped by a suitable scrapper. While scratching, care should be taken not to damage the value and appearance of the substrate, especially in case of wooden, marble or valuable metal articles / substrates.
  • Solvent Based. Paints: (enamels, interior wall paints like Lustre or Matt, all primers, knifing paste filler, Touchwood; etc.)
    • Wet condition: Immediately wash with mineral turpentine oil and wipe with clean cloth.
    • Dried film: The drip should be soaked with mineral turpentine or if dried for more time i.e. two days, then use Xylene and then scratch the film by a suitable scrapper. While scratching, care should be taken not to damage the value and appearance of the substrate, especially in case of wooden, marble or valuable metal articles / substrates. Then the area should be wiped with water or dilute detergent solution and dried.
  • Wood Finishes: (Melamyne or PU, etc.)
    • Wet Condition: The drips of Melamyne can be cleaned by soaking with Thinner T -124 and then wiping out with dean cloth. Similarly, PU can be cleaned by soaking with PU Thinner (no 338)and then wiping with clean cloth.

Cleaning of Articles / Substrates

  • Recoating on a painted / polished wood with clear finish: Apply paint remover / stripper on the surface. Scrap the peeled coating from the surface of the wood. Clean the surface with NC thinner to remove traces of paint film and residual paint remover / material. Allow sufficient time (overnight) before applying any coating.
  • Changing colour of the wood: Remove the colour with paint remover however, if the stain has been directly applied to wood, removal of stain will be difficult. In such cases, it is advisable to apply the same stain or darker during recoating work.
  • Cleaning the drips of Touchwood, Melamyne and PU on wooden articles & on floor / tiles: It is difficult to remove the drip marks from wooden articles. If the paint is penetrated through the surface then, the entire film has to be removed and recoated. It can be done with the help of scrapper or files (available in hardware stores) gently without damaging the wood. Then sanding with emery paper no. 180 and continuing as normal application of wood finish. Drip marks on the floor / tiles can be removed by carefully scrapping with putty knife or scrapper. However, mask the area near the coating surface as scrapping of coating in case of Melamyne and PU can be very time – consuming.
  • Cleaning of wax drips: Carefully scrape up as much solid wax as possible. Next, place a freezer bag of ice cubes over the affected area for several minutes. As the cold makes wax more brittle, use a butter knife to scrape off additional residue. Finally, try a warm-hot method. Use a hair dryer to soften the balanced material and scrape it away or place a very absorbent material like thick paper towel (or napkin) on the spill and hit it with warm-hot iron. The wax will be liquefied and absorbed up into the material.
  • Cleaning of carpet:
    • Cleaning of water based paint: Scrape off as much paint as possible with an old knife or similar. Then using a cloth or sponge dipped in the solution (a cup of warm water and a spoon of dish detergent, no bleach), dab the stain working from the outside in. If the paint does not start to dissolve in soapy water then it may need to be soaked for a few minutes. When some of the paint starts to dissolve, use a tissue to blot up the paint filled fluid that is being created. A little clean water also can be used. The key thing is to always use a blotting motion and not a pouring motion or else it may lead to saturation of the carpet and spreading of the stain.
    • Cleaning of oil based paint: For oil based coatings, solvent like mineral turpentine or methylated spirit can be used. A better one to use is dry cleaning solvent. Just the same as water based coatings, dampen a rag and dab the paint stain from outside in not spreading the stain. Then, use a detergent solution to remove the dissolved paint.
  • Removal of mildew from bathroom: Use an old toothbrush to scrub the mildew from the grout between tiles. For more stubborn stains cover them with a paste of scouring powder that contains bleach, leave for a few hours. Scrub and rinse clean. After using the shower, leave the door or curtain open. Wipe down the walls to dry them. Once they are close dry. Close the shower door or curtain to allow that to dry also.

Diagnose your painting problems

Solution-to-Chalking-Problem-College-Pro-Painters

Diagnose your painting problems with our detailed list of common defects, their causes and simple prevention measures. Here are a few ideas to plan and have your painting job done in a more organised way.

Low Coverage

Causes :

  • Improper thinning and application.
  • Highly absorbent surface.
  • Rough texture of plaster.
  • Top coat application directly over putty without application of primer.

Prevention:

  • Please read instructions on shade card or product packaging or refer to “Features and Application” section. Follow recommended instructions on application procedures and thinning.

Blistering

Causes :

  • Caused by trapped moisture or gases in paint film (more likely in enamels).

Prevention :

  • Follow the specified recoating time interval.
  • Top coat application should not result in too thick a film at a time.

Remedy :

  • Smooth sand the surface and then repaint it.

Poor Adhesion

Causes :

  • Application of paint over oily, greasy or very smooth surface.
  • Application over loose particles like dust or rust.
  • Not sanding previous coat of gloss paint.
  • Application over partially dried coat.

Prevention :

  • Ensure proper surface preparation.

Remedy :

  • Surface should be repainted.

Chalking

Causes :

  • Application of paint over oily, greasy or very smooth surface.
  • Application over loose particles like dust or rust.
  • Not sanding previous coat of gloss paint.
  • Application over partially dried coat.

Prevention:

  • Ensure proper surface preparation.

Remedy:

  • Surface should be repainted.

Orange Peel

Causes :

  • Application of top coat paint in highly viscous form.
  • Use of improper thinner.

Prevention:

  • Sufficient drying time between coats.
  • Use recommended painting system.

Remedy:

  • Scrape out orange peel and repaint.

Sags and Runs

Causes :

  • Application of excessively thick coat.
  • Use of a wrong thinner.

Prevention:

  • Apply finish coat using recommended thinner.
  • Do not apply thick coats.

Remedy:

  • Sand surface to smoothen the sagged areas and repaint.

Brush Marks

Causes :

  • Applying paint using poor quality brushes.
  • Highly viscous paint.
  • Careless application.

Prevention:

  • Use proper brushes and thin paint to desired proportion.

Remedy:

  • Sand surface to a smooth finish and apply paint (after thinning to desired proportion).
  • Use good quality brushes.

Checking and Chalking

Causes :

  • Cracking of plaster.
  • Application of matt finish over glossy undercoat finish.
  • Application of finish coat before drying of the under coat.
  • Applying quick hard dry coats over a soft one.

Prevention:

  • Undercoat and top coat of paint should have identical physical properties.
  • Allow drying time between two coats.

Remedy:

  • Entire coat must be completely removed.
  • Exposed base should be then rubbed down to a smooth face and primed before repainting.

Cissing

Causes :

  • Small impurities in paint (oil, grease) visible at the centre of the hole.

Prevention:

  • Clean surfaces prior to sanding and remove all sanding dust.

Remedy:

  • Remove paint completely from affected areas and repaint.

Yellowing

Causes :

  • Paint film is deprived of natural sunlight (especially in case of enamels).
  • Paint film subjected to too much sunlight.

Prevention:

  • Use paints like Royale, Premium Emulsion.
  • Improved daylight and ventilation for inside work.

Remedy:

  • Surface should be cleaned and repainted.
  • Use recommended system.

Microbial Growth

Causes :

  • Painting over a surface affected with microbial growth.
  • Seepage or dampness in buildings.
  • Contamination of paint by materials used in putty preparation.

Prevention:

  • Before painting, area should be cleaned with 5-10 % bleach solution.
  • Use clear water for thinning and putty preparation.
  • Keep doors and windows open during and after painting.

Remedy:

  • Clean with bleach solution and repaint.

Patchiness

Causes :

  • Application of finish coat over spot puttied surfaces.
  • High alkalinity of surface (evident in new walls).
  • Incomplete drying of putty.
  • Application of thick coat of putty.

Prevention:

  • Allow new walls to get cured for at least three months.
  • Apply thin coats of putty.
  • Always apply a primer coat after applying spot putty.
  • Always sandwich coats of putty with primer.
  • Cracks in plaster should be filled with cement sand mixture.

Remedy:

  • Scrape the surface and repaint adopting the right surface preparation.

Wooden Surface – Transparent Finishes

Surface Preparation

  • The Wooden Surface to be coated/painted must be seasoned (moisture level between 10-15%). It indicates proper level of moisture and treatment to prevent deformation in extreme hot/cold climate.
  • In case of new wood surface, first the surface has to be sanded with emery paper along the direction of the grains of the wood to remove the roughness of the wood.
  • This has to be followed by application of suitable wood filler. The purpose of the filler is to fill the grains and pores and it should not be used as putty. The excess filler must be removed by strokes along the grain pattern. After 30 minutes, the filler may be applied again if required. Allow 2 to 3 hours drying time.
  • Sand the filled surface with emery paper no. 320.
  • Staining with Apcolite Wood Stains is optional. Do not use Apcolite Wood Stains on exterior wooden surfaces.

Painting

For New Wood

  • Ensure that the surface to be coated is free from dust.
  • Choose any transparent coating from Asian Paints like Touchwood, Melamyne or PU Clear Finish.
  • Two to three coats of finish coating application are recommended to achieve the best results in terms of gloss and decorative appeal.
  • Containers should be tightly closed after use.

For Pre-Polished Wood

  • Sand the surface along the grains with emery paper No. 180 followed by No. 320 to get a smooth uniform surface.
  • If staining is desired, completely remove the old finish. Wipe the surface free of loose dust.
  • Proceed with the finish paint coats as explained above.

Wooden Surface – Opaque Finishes

Surface Preparation

  • Previously painted wooden surfaces must be properly sanded to remove any dust or grease.
  • Apply wood primer by brush after thinning to given ratio by recommended thinner.
  • Allow it to dry for 6-8 hours, then apply putty or lambi.
  • Sand the applied putty with 180 no. sand paper and apply 2nd coat of wood primer.
  • Now the wooden surface is ready for painting with the top coat

Painting

  • For opaque finish, you can choose conventional enamels (Apcolite Premium Gloss Enamel, Apcolite Premium Satin Enamel or Gattu Synthetic Enamel).
  • Apply wood primer by brush after thinning it to a given ratio with the recommended thinner.
  • Allow it to dry for 6-8 hours then apply putty or Lambi.
  • Sand the applied putty with 180 no. sand paper and apply second coat of wood primer.
  • Now the wooden surface is ready for painting with the top coat
  • Enamels are normally applied by brushing, although they can also be sprayed.
  • The drying time of enamels is longer; hence care must be taken to ensure a dust free environment while the paint film is drying.
  • Two coats of paint is sufficient in most cases, however if the earlier paint shade was significantly darker than the new shade an additional coat of paint is recommended.